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What is 3G?Learn All about 3G,UMTS,WCDMA,3G Bands,APN,HSPA,HSUPA,HSDPA etc.

The high-speed access to voice and data technology is known as 3G service, as it is considered the third generation of cellular telecommunications technology. A 3G network is necessary for this service to function. It offers advancements on the 1G and 2G networks such as multimedia applications like video and broadband services

3G service is based on standards developed by the International Telecommunications Union, known as the IMT-2000 criteria. The telephony service itself benefits from better range and wider accessibility. In addition, data transfer speeds are better than dial-up speeds, and more in line with cable modem technology.

Minimum speeds for a stationary user is 2 megabits per second. When in a moving vehicle, users get 348 kilobits per second. In ideal conditions, 3G service provides for download speeds of 14.4 megabits per second. Upload speeds range around 5.8 megabits per second.

The key component to 3G service is mobile-to-mobile voice transfer. During this process, three layers of information are sent. The first layer is the actual voice information. The second layer is a control transmission to keep the quality high. The last layer is basic connection information that prevents dropped calls.

While there are a number of similarities between WiFi technology and 3G services, a few distinct differences exist. WiFi was created to allow high-bandwidth data transfer over a short range transmission. This makes it ideal for local connectivity to larger networks. 3G networks use large satellite-driven connections that connect to a system of telecommunication towers. This means that the range is far greater than other technologies.

The first countries to implement this service option were Japan and South Korea, where 3G now accounts for nearly 70 percent of the networks. Europe and North America, specifically companies in the United Kingdom and United States, have also implemented these services to a bulk of commercial customers.

There are also a number of security concerns regarding this service. Mobile-to-mobile communication uses encryption to keep communications and data exchange hidden from eavesdropping. The 3G network's size and range called for a new technique known as KASUMI block crypto. This encryption has many weaknesses over its predecessor, the A5/1 stream cipher.

Mobile, posted: 3-Apr-2009 13:45
Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) cell phone technologies. The most common form of UMTS uses Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) as the underlying air interface.

High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocol that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. Three standards, HSDPA, HSUPA and HSPA+ have been established.

High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) deployments support peak downlink speeds of 1.2, 1.8, 3.6, 7.2 and 14.4 Mbps. Each data speed is defined as a Category within HSDPA.

High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) deployment support peak uplink speeds up to 5.76 Mbps. Also uses Categories to describe the various evolutions within HSUPA

HSPA+ (also known as: HSPA Evolution & Evolved HSPA) provides data rates up to 42 Mbps on the downlink and 22 Mbps on the uplink. Most common mechanism for increasing data rates is MIMO, a smart antenna technology.

LTE Long Term Evolution  next version


HSDPA Categories
Category 1    1.2 Mbit/s
Category 2    1.2 Mbit/s
Category 3    1.8 Mbit/s
Category 4    1.8 Mbit/s
Category 5    3.6 Mbit/s
Category 6    3.6 Mbit/s
Category 7    7.2 Mbit/s
Category 8    7.2 Mbit/s
Category 9    10.2 Mbit/s
Category 10    14.4 Mbit/s

HSUPA Categories
Category 1    0.73 Mbit/s
Category 2    1.46 Mbit/s
Category 3    1.46 Mbit/s
Category 4    2.93 Mbit/s
Category 5    2.00 Mbit/s
Category 6    5.76 Mbit/s
Category 7     11.5 Mbit/s

Technology Standards Evolution
(2G)        GSM
(2.5G)      GPRS
(2.75G)     EDGE
(3G)          UMTS
LTE (4G)   

It is worth noting that a number of 3G devices are WCDMA Rel99. This means that either their Uplink or both Uplink and Downlink is constrained to either 384kbps or even worse 128kbps.

Definition of 3G:
3G is the third generation of wireless technologies. It comes with enhancements over previous wireless technologies, like high-speed transmission, advanced multimedia access and global roaming. 3G is mostly used with mobile phones and handsets as a means to connect the phone to the Internet or other IP networks in order to make voice and video calls, to download and upload data and to surf the net.
How is 3G Better?:
3G has the following enhancements over 2.5G and previous networks:
Several times higher data speed;
Enhanced audio and video streaming;
Video-conferencing support;
Web and WAP browsing at higher speeds;
IPTV (TV through the Internet) support.
3G Technical Specifications:
The transfer rate for 3G networks is between 128 and 144 kbps (kilobits per second) for devices that are moving fast and 384 kbps for slow ones(like for pedestrians). For fixed wireless LANs, the speed goes beyond 2 Mbps.
3G is a set of technologies and standards that include W-CDMA, WLAN and cellular radio, among others.

3G follows a pattern of G's that started in the early 1990's by the ITU. The pattern is actually a wireless initiative called the IMT-2000 (International Mobile Communications 2000). 3G therefore comes just after 2G and 2.5G, the second generation technologies. 2G technologies include, among others, the Global System for Mobile (GSM) - the famous mobile phone technology we use today. 2.5G brings standards that are midway between 2G and 3G, including the General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) etc.

What is Required for Using 3G?:
The first thing you require is a device (e.g. a mobile phone) that is 3G compatible. This is where the name 3G phone comes from - a phone that has 3G functionality; nothing to do with the number of cameras or the memory it has. An example is the iPhone 3G.
3G phones commonly have two cameras since the technology allows the user to have video calls, for which a user-facing camera is required for capturing him/her.

Unlike with Wi-Fi which you can get for free in hotspots, you need to be subscribed to a service provider to get 3G network connectivity. We often call this kind of service a data plan or network plan.

Your device is connected to the 3G network through its SIM card (in the case of a mobile phone) or its 3G data card (which can be of different types: USB, PCMCIA etc.), which are both generally provided/sold by the service provider. Through that, you get connected to the Internet whenever you are within a 3G network. Even if you are not in one, you can still use 2G or 2.5G services provided by the service provider.
What Does 3G Cost?:
3G is not very cheap, but it is worthwhile for users that need connectivity on the move. Some providers offer it within a somewhat costly package, but most of them have plans where the user pays for the amount of data transferred. This is because the technology is packet-based. For example, there are service plans where there is a flat rate for the first Gigabyte of data transferred, and a per minute cost for each additional Megabyte.
3G and Voice:
Wireless technologies are a way for mobile users to make free or cheap calls worldwide and save a lot of money due to the latest telephony applications and services. 3G networks have the advantage of being available on the move, unlike Wi-Fi, which is limited to a few meters around the emitting router. So, a user with a 3G phone and a 3G data plan is well-equipped for making free mobile calls. She will only have to download one of the free applications and install on her mobile phone and start making calls. Here are examples of mobile VoIP services.


Fast Facts  :

Welcome to Bluetooth Technology 101

A brief tutorial on Bluetooth wireless technology

What is Bluetooth technology?
Bluetooth wireless technology is built into a wide range of products, from cars and mobile phones to medical devices and computers. Bluetooth technology you share voice, music, photos, videos, and other information wirelessly between two paired devices.
Radio waves
Mobile phones, FM radio and television all use different kinds of radio waves to send information – such as music and videos – wirelessly.

What's the difference?

Bluetooth technology also uses radio waves. The biggest difference between Bluetooth technology and devices like FM radios and TV is distance. Radios and TV are meant to broadcast to many people over miles or kilometers. Bluetooth technology sends information within your own personal space, which is called your Personal Area Network or "PAN" at distances up to 10 meters (33 feet).
When someone says a product "has Bluetooth", that means it has a piece of "hardware", or a small computer chip that contains the Bluetooth radio, and some software that lets you, the user, connect that product to other products wirelessly using Bluetooth technology.
The kind of radio technology used by Bluetooth technology dates back to discoveries pioneered by the military in the 1940s.
When was Bluetooth technology invented?
Bluetooth technology was invented in 1994 by engineers at Ericsson, a Swedish company. In 1998, a group of companies agreed to work together using Bluetooth technology as a way to connect their products. These companies formed the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG), an organization devoted to maintaining the technology. This means that no single company "owns" Bluetooth technology, but that many members of the Bluetooth SIG work together to develop Bluetooth technology.
Where does the name come from?
'Bluetooth' was the code name for the SIG when it was first formed and the name stuck. The name "Bluetooth" is actually very old! It is from the 10th century Danish King Harald Blåtand - or Harold Bluetooth in English. King Blåtand was instrumental in uniting warring factions in parts of what is now Norway, Sweden and Denmark - just as Bluetooth technology is designed to allow collaboration between different business sectors such as the computing, mobile phones and automotive industries.
What else can Bluetooth technology do?
Bluetooth technology was originally intended to be a wireless replacement for cables and wires between things like phones and headsets or computers, keyboards and mice. It works great in those devices and it can do so much more – connecting TVs, music players and even home healthcare devices.
Bluetooth technology has continued to mature and now you can create new connections that weren't possible using wires, like connecting your mobile phone to your car stereo, or printing a picture directly from your camera phone.

What is A2DP?
A2DP (Advanced Audio Distribution Profile) is a Bluetooth profile for streaming audio, such as from a music phone to headphones. A2DP supports stereo audio, and is one-way instead of two-way.

A Look at the Basics of Bluetooth Wireless Technology :

Bluetooth technology is a short-range communications technology that is simple, secure, and everywhere. You can find it in billions of devices ranging from mobile phones and computers to medical devices and home entertainment products. It is intended to replace the cables connecting devices, while maintaining high levels of security.
The key features of Bluetooth technology are robustness, low power, and low cost. The Bluetooth Specification defines a uniform structure for a wide range of devices to connect and communicate with each other.
When two Bluetooth enabled devices connect to each other, this is called pairing. The structure and the global acceptance of Bluetooth technology means any Bluetooth enabled device, almost everywhere in the world, can connect to other Bluetooth enabled devices located in proximity to one another.
Connections between Bluetooth enabled electronic devices allow these devices to communicate wirelessly through short-range, ad hoc networks known as piconets. Piconets are established dynamically and automatically as Bluetooth enabled devices enter and leave radio proximity meaning that you can easily connect whenever and wherever it's convenient for you.  

Each device in a piconet can also simultaneously communicate with up to seven other devices within that single piconet and each device can also belong to several piconets simultaneously. This means the ways in which you can connect your Bluetooth devices is almost limitless.
A fundamental strength of Bluetooth wireless technology is the ability to simultaneously handle data and voice transmissions. which provides users with a variety of innovative solutions such as hands-free headsets for voice calls, printing and fax capabilities, and synchronization for PCs and mobile phones, just to name a few.
The range of Bluetooth technology is application specific.  The Core Specification mandates a minimum range of 10 meters or 30 feet, but there is no set limit and manufacturers can tune their implementations to provide the range needed to support the use cases for their solutions.
Bluetooth Core Specification
Unlike other wireless standards, the Bluetooth Core Specification provides product developers both link layer and application layer definitions, which support data and voice applications. For more information about the Bluetooth Core Specification, visit our member site (member sign-in required for some sections of the site).
Bluetooth technology operates in the unlicensed industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz, using a spread spectrum, frequency hopping, full-duplex signal at a nominal rate of 1600 hops/sec. The 2.4 GHz ISM band is available and unlicensed in most countries.
Bluetooth technology's adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) capability was designed to reduce interference between wireless technologies sharing the 2.4 GHz spectrum. AFH works within the spectrum to take advantage of the available frequency. This is done by the technology detecting other devices in the spectrum and avoiding the frequencies they are using. This adaptive hopping among 79 frequencies at 1 MHz intervals gives a high degree of interference immunity and also allows for more efficient transmission within the spectrum. For users of Bluetooth technology this hopping provides greater performance even when other technologies are being used along with Bluetooth technology.
Range is application specific and although a minimum range is mandated by the Core Specification, there is not a limit and manufacturers can tune their implementation to support the use case they are enabling.
Range may vary depending on class of radio used in an implementation:
Class 3 radios – have a range of up to 1 meter or 3 feet
Class 2 radios – most commonly found in mobile devices – have a range of 10 meters or 33 feet
Class 1 radios – used primarily in industrial use cases – have a range of 100 meters or 300 feet
The most commonly used radio is Class 2 and uses 2.5 mW of power. Bluetooth technology is designed to have very low power consumption. This is reinforced in the specification by allowing radios to be powered down when inactive.
The Generic Alternate MAC/PHY in Version 3.0 HS enables the discovery of remote AMPs for high speed devices and turns on the radio only when needed for data transfer giving a power optimization benefit as well as aiding in the security of the radios.
Bluetooth low energy technology, optimized for devices requiring maximum battery life instead of a high data transfer rate, consumes between 1/2 and 1/100 the power of classic Bluetooth technology.
Bluetooth technical information
If you're an engineer, product manager, or anyone else looking for detailed technical information, visit our member site. You'll find a large Technical Resources section (member sign-in required) that covers testing and qualification, profiles, the Bluetooth Core Specification, and much more.
The Bluetooth SIG runs this website,, which is dedicated to members and serves as the definitive source of information around Bluetooth SIG programs, initiatives, and Bluetooth wireless technology development. If you are associated with a member company or interested in Bluetooth SIG membership, learn more at

Low energy technology is an evolution in Bluetooth wireless technology
Bluetooth low energy technology will enable a plethora of new applications - some not even possible or imagined today.
Markets for these new low energy devices include health care, sports and fitness, security, and home entertainment. These and many other markets will be enhanced by the availability of small, coin-cell battery powered wireless products and sensors that use Bluetooth low energy wireless technology.
In July 2010, the Bluetooth SIG announced the formal adoption of Bluetooth Core Specification Version 4.0 with the hallmark feature, Bluetooth low energy technology. This final step in the adoption process opened the Bluetooth SIG Qualification Program for all Bluetooth prototypes to Version 4.0 of the Specification.
This announcement by the SIG follows the adoption of Bluetooth low energy technology in December 2009. The latest enhancement to the Bluetooth Core Specification in 2010 creates new opportunities for developers and manufacturers of Bluetooth enabled devices and applications, bringing to life entirely new markets for devices that need to be low cost and operate with low power wireless connectivity.
Bluetooth low energy technology features
Key features of Bluetooth low energy wireless technology include:
Ultra-low peak, average and idle mode power consumption
Ability to run for years on standard, coin-cell batteries
Low cost
Multi-vendor interoperability
Enhanced range
Bluetooth Innovation World Cup contest focuses on low energy technology
After a successful first year of competition in 2009, the Bluetooth SIG called on developers, entrepreneurs and students to submit ideas in 2010 for products that use Bluetooth low energy technology. The 2010 contest focused on Bluetooth enabled products for health care, sports and fitness, and home automation. All these product ideas make use of the unique characteristics of Bluetooth low energy technology, such as very low power consumption and compatibility with existing Bluetooth enabled devices.
The Bluetooth SIG will begin accepting entries for the 2011 contest on 1 May. Visit the Innovation World Cup contest page for more information.
See the winners and finalists our judges selected for the 2010 Innovation World Cup.

Market potential of Bluetooth Low Energy Technology
Extend Your Personal Area Network
Bluetooth low energy technology extends your personal area network (PAN) to include Bluetooth enabled devices that are powered by small, coin-cell batteries.  With low energy technology, sports and health care equipment, human interface (HIDs) and entertainment devices are enhanced. The technology can be built into products such as watches, wireless keyboards, gaming and sports sensors, which can then connect and communicate with to host devices such as mobile phones and personal computers.
In a market full of narrow, local, proprietary connectivity solutions, Bluetooth low energy technology differentiates itself through its:
Ease of implementation and multi-vendor interoperability
Ultra-low peak, average and idle mode power consumption
Low cost of integration
Power handling
Resistance to interference
Bluetooth low energy technology enhances existing use cases and enables new ones, widening the marketplace for Bluetooth wireless technology.
New Research and Trials Underway on Bluetooth Low Energy Technology
Bluetooth low energy technology will open many new and interesting market segments. To help develop this market and help mobile operators better understand new revenue opportunities, we've chosen one market segment to focus on initially: Health and Fitness.
The Bluetooth SIG teamed up beginning in September 2010 with industry leaders in health and fitness, phone manufacturers, IMS Research and a major mobile operator to begin research and trials of new Bluetooth low energy technology products focused on health and fitness.

Bluetooth high speed technology will let you quickly send large entertainment files like video and music between your devices.
The Bluetooth SIG announced the release of Bluetooth high speed technology in April 2009 when it completed Bluetooth Core Specification Version 3.0 + HS. The v3.0 Specification enables the use of a Generic Alternate MAC/PHY, allowing well known Bluetooth protocols, profiles, security, and pairing to be used in consumer devices while achieving faster throughput by momentary use of a secondary radio already present in the device.
Bluetooth high speed technology is also included in the newer Bluetooth v4.0 Specification released in June 2010.
Bluetooth high speed technology works by isolating activity from the AMPs, enabling the use of new radios without full system integration. This reduces costs while expanding future build opportunities. It also removes the user from new paradigms and supports existing Bluetooth use cases, making them faster and ensuring continuity for the UX experience while lowering costs and reducing training requirements.
The v3.0 + HS enhancement to the Core Specification provides consumers with powerful, wireless connections that are more robust that ever before. Features include:
Power Optimization - By using the high speed radio only when you need it, Bluetooth high speed reduces power consumption, which means a longer battery life for your devices.
Improved Security - The Generic Alternate MAC/PHY in Bluetooth high speed enables the radio to discover other high speed devices only when they are needed to transfer your music, pictures or other data. Not only does this optimize power, but it also aids in the security of the radios.
Enhanced Power Control - Limited drop-outs are now a reality. The enhanced power control of Bluetooth high speed makes power control faster and ensures limited drop-outs, reducing consumer experience of impacts from power. Users are now less likely to lose a headset connection—even when the phone is in a coat pocket or deep inside a purse.
Lower Latency Rates - Unicast Connectionless Data improves the customer experience of speed by lowering latency rates, sending small amounts of data more quickly.

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